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The land of the Pharaohs, of the Pyramids and the Sphinx. Egypt sits on over 100,000 square miles of oases and deserts, with the Mediterranean and the Red Sea as borders, the and the silvery green waters of the Nile spanning its length. Egypt can boast one of the greatest heritages from the ancient world and has an unparalleled wealth of archaeological and historical sites. It is enough to mention just a few: the Pyramids, the Sphinx, the temples of Luxor and Karnak, the Valleys of Kings and Queens and Abu Simbel. The capital of the ancient kingdom was Memphis, located quite close to Cairo. Near here we find the step pyramids of the early dynasties at Saqqara. The capital of the Middle Kingdom was Thebes, on the site of today Luxor, named after the splendor of the old capital full of palaces. The New Kingdom also sees Thebes as capital along with the greatest period of Egyptian splendor with rulers as Ramses II and queens like Nefertari. The era of Pharohos ended with the arrival of Alexander the Great who moved the capital to the newly founded city of Alexandria. Afterwards, empires came and went: first Rome, then Byzantium, then the Arabs who founded Cairo as the new capital, the Mamlukes and, finally the Ottoman Empire. When in 1798 Napoleon landed in Egypt, the country was put into contact with Europe and the rest of the world. The era of the Sultans started and lasted till 1936 when the British occupied Egypt and with the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty King Farouk was given the reins of power. In 1954 Nasser became the full leader of Egypt and entered Egypt fully in the modern world. Egypt is a land of climatic contrast with marked differences between the coastal Mediterranean climate and the hot dryness of the interior. In deserted areas there is also a great difference between day and night temperatures. It is sunny for most of the year and rain falls only in a few places and not more than 40 days a year at that. June, July and August are hot but with cooler evening due to the desert breezes that blow into the Nile Valley. Egypt is probably one of the oldest vacation spots. Early Greeks, Romans and others went there just for fun, and to see the wonders of some of mankind's earliest triumphs. But Egypt is much more than Pyramids and monuments. It is also Red Sea scuba diving, hot night spots, Luxurious hotels and five star restaurants. It is romantic cruises down the Nile on festive river boats, a night at the grand opera and it is a cultural experience like none you have ever experienced. Egypt is a land bustling with life, sound, visual beauty and excitement.
Area: 1,002,000 Sq Km  
Population: 65 million (official estimate for 1999)
Religion: Islam is the dominant religion. For Christianity the majority is from the Coptic Church.
Health: Egypt is free from diseases that could be met within normal circumstances. Drinking water in Egypt is safe. But it is recommended to use mineral water wherever possible. Chemists, clinics and hospitals are open to tourists and the public every day in most areas.
Time: GMT + 2 hours  
Electricity: 220 VOLTS AC; 2 Pins plug.  
Suggested Clothing: Light weight cottons during summer with warmer clothes for winter and the cool evenings. Women should not wear revealing clothes in religious buildings. 
Currency: The Egyptian pound (£E) =100 piaster (p). 
Banking Hours: Sunday -Thursday 8:30-2pm 
Shopping Hours: 9:00 am till 12:00 pm in most places . Some shopes open from 9:00 am to 11:00 except sunday .
CLIMATE & WEATHER - Egypt lies between the Mediterra­nean and the 23rd parallel north of the Equator its sunny for all but a few days of the year. Rain does not fall on more than 40 days a year and then only in a few places. Within Egypt, there is the contrast between the coastal Mediterranean climate and the hot dryness of the interior. In the desert areas there is a sharp contrast between day and night temperatures. The weather is predictably dry, sunny and warm most of the year with very little rainfall. The winter temperatures are similar to the European and USA spring. June, July and August are rather hot, but the evenings are refreshingly cooler due to the desert breezes that blow into the Nile Valley.
Places
Winter
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Alexandria
50-68F / 10-20C
57-75F / 14-24C
72-86F / 22-30C
64-81F / 18-27C
Cairo
49-68F / 9-20C
57-66F / 14-19C
68-95F / 20-35C
63-84F / 17-29C
Luxor
45-77F / 9-25C
61-93F / 17-34C
73-106F / 23-41C
64-95F / 18-35C
Aswan
48-77F / 9-25C
63-93F / 17-34C
73-106F / 23-41C
66-97F / 18-35C
Hurghada
52-70F / 11-21C
61-79F / 16-26C
75-90F / 24-32C
68-82F / 20-28C

Distances between Cairo and the main cities in kilometers/miles:

  • Abu Simbel ... 1235 Km | 1976 miles
  • Hurghada ... 510 Km | 816 miles
  • Alexandria ... 217 Km | 348 miles
  • Luxor ... 720 Km | 1152 miles
  • Aswan ... 1202 Km | 1924 miles
  • St. Catherine ... 450 Km | 720 miles
  • Sharm El Sheikh ... 481 Km | 770 miles
  • Siwa Oasis ... 790 Km | 1264 miles
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